Monday, October 14, 2019
What Is Decision Support System?
What Is Decision Support System? DSS can be defined as use of computer application that can help managers, staff members, or people who interact within the organization to make decisions and identify problems by using available data and communication technology. Origin Of DSS In 1960 J. C. R. Licklider wrote a paper on his observation of how the interaction between man and computer can improve the quality and competency in recognising and problem solving. His paper proved to be like a guide to many future researches on DSS. In 1962 with use of hypertext online system helped in storage and retrieval of documents and creation of digital libraries. SAGE (Semi Automatic Ground Environment) built by Forrester is probably the first data driven computerised DSS. In 1964 Scott Morton built up an interactive model driven management decision system which could help managers make important management decisions. In 1970 John D.C. Little noted that the requirement for designing models and system to make a management decision was completeness to data, simplicity, ease of control and robustness, which till date are relevant in improving and evaluating modern DSSs. By 1975 he built up a DSS called Brandaid which could support promotion, advertising, pricing and product r elated decisions. In 1974 the focus was on giving managers with information which was from accounting and transaction processing system with use if MIS(Management Information Systems) but MIS was found to not helping out managers with making key decisions. Hence in 1979 Scott Morton and Gorry argued that MIS just primarily focused on structured decisions and hence the system which also supports unstructured and semi-structured decision should be termed as Decision support systems. In s nutshell developments:- 1960ÃâÃ Building model-driven DSS 1970 ÃâÃ Theory developments Mid 80s ÃâÃ Implementation of financial planning systems, spreadsheet DSS and Group DSS. Early 90s ÃâÃ Evolving of Data warehouses, Executive Information Systems, OLAP and Business Intelligence. Mid 90s ÃâÃ Knowledge-driven DSS and the implementation of Web-based DSS Types Of DSS: Model Driven DSS `Quantitative models provide the most basic level of functionality. Model driven DSSs use small data and parameters provided by the DSSs users usually managers to help them in analysing a problem and generate statistical, financial report and simulation model to help the decision makers. Model driven DSSs question can help organisational processes to answer the WHAT IF question and thus help them forecast the effects of changes in business process. Ferguson and Jones production scheduling application was also a model-driven DSS but Scott-Mortons in 1971, production planning management decision system was the first widely discussed model-driven DSS. Data Driven DSS Data driven DSS are systems which makes use of companys mostly internal data and sometimes external and real time data to help organisations make decisions. Usually the data comes in form of databases or data warehouse which allows queries and data retrieval tools and analysis to make decisions. Richard Klaas and Charles Weiss at American Airlines developed one of the first data-driven DSS. An example of data driven DSS can be use of digital maps or the GIS( Geographic Information System). Communication Driven DSS Communication Driven DSS helps in decision making to internal group of people by sharing of information and enabling communication between them. Most basic example can be the threaded email between a group and complex example can be video conferencing. In communication driven DSS communication technologies is most important component of its working architecture. In recent years internet provided vast possibilities to communication driven DSS. Groupware bulletin video and audio conferencing are few of the technologies used for communication Driven DSS. Document Driven DSS Document driven DSS uses the organisations documents such as policies, procedures, processes, specifications, historical, stored documents and processing technologies to give documental analysis and enhance decision making. This type is system is usually targeted at larger base of users. Internet greatly increases the availability of all required documents and hence helps in development of document driven DSS. Knowledge Driven DSS Knowledge Driven DSS are used usually by managers to help them with management advice or to choose products or services. These DSSs can be just a standalone computers with applications which are expert in particular domain along with its understanding so as to solve the problems of that particular domain. Artificial intelligence is vastly used by such application to help Knowledge driven DSSs. Now a days Knowledge Driven DSS coupled with intelligence systems are used at medical diagnostic centres, fraud detection and scheduling manufacturing operations. Web-based DSS Computerized DSSs capabilities were extended with emergence of internet and world-wide web. With passing time HTML developed and TAGS and tables further helped in enhancing Web-based DSS. With all these developments web-based DSS became main platform for all types of DSS to develop. Corporate have started using intranet for knowledge management and support information exchange between various departments. The server that is having the DSS application is connected to the computer by a network through the TCP/IP protocol. Recently application service providers introduced enterprise knowledge portals that combined information portals, knowledge management, business intelligence and communications-driven DSS in an integrated Web environment. Benefits of DSS Improves efficiency Helps in faster problem solving Helps in interpersonal communication Promotes learning Increases organizational control Provides new evidence in support of a decision Creates a competitive advantage over competition Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Helps automate the managerial processes. Cost reduction and enhance profit. Disadvantages of DSS Over dependency for Decision making Assuming it to be correct. Unanticipated effects Deflect personal responsibilities Information overload. Conclusion DSS is still and evolving technology. The types of DSS mentioned are just few of the many DSS which are around and help organization in decision making. Many of the types of DSS are subsets of previously researched and created DSS with added functionality and/or requirements. A very brief span of historical data has been used to portray DSS evolution and growth in early years. All the scientists, researchers and professors then set up a base for future DSS to develop and build upon to enhance and simplify decision making. By understanding how DSS evolved over the period of time and how its still being developed helps us in understanding how and where the future DSSs are heading and what to expect next in this fast emerging technology. Of the types discussed Web based is the most rapidly growing and improving DSS. Recent developments in internet, computers and communication devices are helping Web-based DSS application to divulge into various other fields. DSS and DSS application continues to take advantage of any and all emerging technologies in artificial intelligence, databases, data warehouses, human interaction with computers which can help improve it more and simplify decision making. Sources/References:: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/decision-support-systems.htm http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/decision-support-system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_support_system http://dssresources.com/history/dsshistory.html Vitamin E: Functions and Metabolism Vitamin E: Functions and Metabolism Vitamin E is one of 4 fat-soluble vitamins. The vitamin is formed by plants, and has eight unlike isoforms separated into two classes of four vitamins each. The compounds include of a 6-chromanol ring and an isoprenoid side chain.The group bond to the R1, R2 and R3 position on the 6-chromanol ring verify whether the vitamin is acknowledged as alpha, beta, gamma, or delta.(www.exrx.nt, 2011) A large body of the study now focuses on the alpha tocopherol form of vitamin E, which is the most biologically active (Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston, 1995, Traber, M.G., 1999). Recently gamma tocopherol has been a subject of importance by countless researchers. Vitamins are a vital source of life. Vitamins are any organic that is essential for many living things to obtain a normal healthy living. (Dorling Kindersley, 1998) Dietary Function Vitamin E is an essential part of cellular membranes whose main role is to protect the cell alongside to oxidation, Within cells and organelles vitamin E is the first line of defence against lipid per oxidation. The vitamin also acts as a very important function in providing elasticity to red blood cells as they travel through the arterial system. Artificial vitamin E nominates dl-alpha-tocopherol, is less expensive from the naturally occurring form, d-alpha tocopherol. The expected/natural form of the vitamin is synthesised only by vegetation and is found mostly in plant oils. Vitamin E is also present in large numbers in the chloroplast and as a result the leaf of most plants.The fat-soluble property of vitamin E allows it to be stored within the fatty tissues of humans and animals. Therefore a diet that includes meat supplies additional vitamin E. However, the amount of vitamin E obtained in a high protein meat complete diet is less than the quantity supplied by a plant source. Metabolism Absorption and Bioavaliability Absorption of vitamin E is highly reliant on the same process that develop during fatty acid digestion and metabolism. A lack of any component of these transporters will reduce carrier structure and in turn vitamin E absorption. vitriol acids are a measured essential for vitamin E absorption and micelle formation. Once formed, the micelle is then able to cross the undiluted water layer and discharge its contents into the enterocyte. A contemplation of the flow pressure of vitamin E through the enterocyte has been elusive to researchers (Traber, M.G., 1999). The ingested Vitamin E is quickly vacant from the bloodstream, into tissues as blood concentrations of vitamin E in humans and animals have minute relation to the quantity within the body. Vitamin E is fat soluble; food intake could potentially persuade its bioavailability, it is claimed that the alpha-tocopherol has the highest bioavailability. The lower bioavailability of Vitamin E is form a typical vitamin E supplement, and the changeability which is experimented when consumed, this suggest that vitamin e is poorly absorbed through the body with low-fat meals. Vitamin E can be improved by food reinforcement makes Vitamin E more bio-available .Bioavailability of vitamin E, is influenced by the increase of risk in coronary heart disease. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is vital for our bodies, to preserve optimum health and in people diets. Vitamin E is extensive and in all kinds of foods. Most vitamin E comes from vegetable oil and products made from them like margarine and salad dressings. It is important for youth,in order to maintain their health. It aids in protecting red blood cells, defends the body against oxidative damage and helps avoid damage of both vitamins A C. Having vitamin E as part of a well balanced diet can reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer, also slows down the effect of Alzheimers disease when consumed in high dosage Once in the blood 15 to 45% of the total vitamin E intake can be absorbed by the cells. Transport Upon reaching the bicollateral exterior of the enterocyte vitamin E is packed into chylomicrons and then elated throughout the body via the movement. Within five minutes of arrangement chylomicrons are broken down by lipoprotein lipase and the contents are isolated towards a range of paths. The vitamin E in the chylomicron equilibrates both with (HDLS) and (LDLS) ( Groff, J.L., Gropper S.S., and Hunt S.M 1995). HDLS all circulate lipoproteins which eventually receive vitamin E, as HDL fervently relocates the compound to the lipoproteins at a rate equivalent to 10% of the plasma vitamin E per hour (Traber, M.G., 1999). The vitamin E remaining in the chylomicron becomes a chylomicron remnant and travels back to the liver for re-uptake in a process that has garnered much research, but so far is poorly understood. Once in the liver the vitamin E is packaged into Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) and excreted back into the circulation. Being the most biologically active of the eight vi tamers, (Groff, J.L., Gropper S.S., and Hunt S.M 1995, Kanter, M.M. 1998, National Academy of Sciences. 2000, Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt), alpha tocopherol is sequestered by the liver and constitutes over 80% of the total vitamin E packaged into the VLDL and secreted by the liver (Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt). The predominant transfer of the alpha vitamer is performed by alpha tocopherol transfer protein (ATTP). As the VLDL are broken down by lipoprotein lipase, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) are formed and from these lipoproteins the vitamin E is transferred to HDL and eventually incorporated into either circulating lipoproteins or peripheral tissue. Any of the previously mentioned lipoproteins have the ability to transfer vitamin E to the tissue as needed (Groff, J.L., Gropper S.S., and Hunt S.M 1995, Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt). A final mechanism for vitamin E is uptake by the peripheral tissue from the chylomicron via lipoprotein lipase activity. Unlike re-uptake o f vitamin E by the chylomicron remnant, uptake of the vitamer by peripheral tissue is better understood. After vitamin E has been transferred to the LDL from the chylomicron two receptors (LDL dependent receptor and LDL independent receptor) within the tissue play a key role in the uptake of vitamin E into the cell (Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt). Storage Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin and therefore over 90% of total body vitamin E is found in the adipose tissue (National Academy of Sciences, 2000, Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt). Over 90% of these pools are found as a part of an adipocyte fat droplet whereas the remaining amount is found mainly in adipocyte cellular membrane. The storage ratios of vitamin E are also very difficult to alter. It takes over two years to alter the ratio of alpha to gamma isoforms. Previous studies have shown that the ratio is altered as the alpha vitamin replaces the gamma vitamin, which is reduced by 70% (Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston, 1995, www.exrx.nt). Concentrations of vitamin E cover a wide range in body tissues. In the plasma the concentration of vitamin E is approximately 27 umol/l. Within skeletal muscle protein the vitamin E concentration varies considerably depending upon the type of muscle (National Academy of Sciences, 2000). Although a large majority of vitamin E is found in adipo se tissue (230 nmol/g wet weight) (National Academy of Sciences, 2000) there isnt an organ that function to store and discharge vitamin E. The actual means regarding vitamin E release from the tissue is unknown at this time. While it seems likely that vitamin E is released during lipolysis associated with exercise this may not be true. Research has shown that even during times of weight reduction vitamin E is not released from the adipose cells (Traber, M.G., 1999). Therefore, the factors that regulate bioavliability of vitamin E from adipose tissue are not known. Requirements As it is unknown how much vitamin E should be consumed by adults, it is aid that according to the (RDA) that men whould have a Vitamin E intake of 15 mgs and 10 mgs for females.(S.Frances,2006) Only natural alpha-tocopherol can typically provide supplements of Vitamin E, and only existing one stereo-isometric form. The need for vitamin E increases as people diet consist of more polyunsaturated fats and oils as the oils in Vitamin E needs a source of antioxidants to help absorption/and protection. Vitamin E is largely contained in raw oils. In 1968 the RDA for vitamin E was established at 300 IU (300 mg) for a 65 kg adult male ( National Academy of Sciences. 2001).The detailed RDA is listed in table 1 and table 2. This daily level is difficult to reach unless a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids was consumed ( Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston1995)From 1 mg of vitamin E approximately .3 ( Traber, M.G., 1999) to .5 is in the alpha vitamin form and therefore readily absorbed. The o ther vitamers are not stored as efficiently and usually excreted ( Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston1995, Traber, M.G., 1999). Therefore a new RDA was set based on the alpha-tocopherol form of the vitamin. In 1989 the RDA for Vitamin E was set at 10 mg alpha tocopherol for men and 8 mg of alpha-tocopherol for women (Traber, M.G., 1999, www.exrx.nt). In the year 2000 all RDA values were in the process of being replaced by Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). The DRI has been established at 15 IU of alpha-tocopherol. The revised DRI levels are the same for both men and women ( Packer, L.1997, www.exrx.nt). Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) In 1968, the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E was established at 300 IU (300 mg) for a 65 kg adult male ( National Academy of Sciences. 2001. The other vitamins are not stored as efficiently and usually excreted (Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston1995, Traber, M.G., 1999). In accordance to information resourced from Traber, M.G. in 1999 , there was a new recommended dietary allowance which was set based on the alpha-tocopherol form of the vitamin. In 1989 the RDA for Vitamin E was set at 10 mg alpha tocopherol for men and 8 mg of alpha-tocopherol for women. Deficiency Anaemia, muscle necrosis, and foetal death have been observed in over fifteen different vitamin-E-deficient animal species.(www.exrx.nt) .Humans who have fat mal-absorption suffer from the same symptoms shown in rats, but to a lesser degree. These manifestations are exhibited early in childhood. Some of the symptoms include decreased sensory perception, muscle weakness, scoliosis, and muscle structural abnormalities. These symptoms can usually be reversed using vitamin E supplementation ( Tiidus, P. M., and M. E. Houston1995, www.exrx.nt)) Vitamin E deficient diets fed to adult humans have resulted in the formation of very few deficiency symptoms. (Bunnell R.H., E. De Ritter, S.H. Rubin 1975, www.exrx.nt) has shown that prisoners performing strenuous physical labour while fed a vitamin-E deficient diet for 13 months exhibited no deficiency symptoms. A diet full of vitamin E may lower the risk of cancer and the likely hood of death, in part through oxidation and inflammation. Lacking vitamin E concentrations in the blood; people die more often and than people with a high blood concentration (s.Frances, 2006).Through research and development of vitamin E has an effect on helping slowing down the loss of function that occurs in Alzheimers disease when taken in excessive dosages. Toxicity Vitamin E toxicity has not often been acknowledged in humans. Doses up to 1600 I.U. have been usually administered in study with no clear unpleasant side effects. Toxicity may be complex since there is a wide variant in daily blood vitamin E levels. Increasing vitamin E levels in muscle tissue is especially difficult to attain and therefore toxic levels are difficult to achieve. Meydani et al. ( Karlsson J.,1997, www.exrx.nt) given 800 I.U. of vitamin E to subjects for a period of 48 days and only saw a 37% increase in plasma alpha tocopherol levels (www.exrx.nt). The tocopherol binding protein is most commonly said to manage the quantity of vitamin E that can be physiologically stored. High levels of vitamin E are likely excreted by the body. Conclusion In conclusion vitamin E may help reduce oxidative stress and lipid per oxidation of cellular membranes. The current Dietary Recommended Intake for vitamin E meets the needs of most individuals can be achieved through a healthy diet, and eating plan. In April 2000 The National Academy of Sciences according to Packer, L. In 1997 established an intake maximum of 1100 I.U for synthetic and 1500 I.U. for natural vitamin E. These maximum levels are approximately one hundred times the Dietary Recommended Intake. Vitamin E supplementation by both active and non active individuals is widely employed. The choice to supplement or not supplement a diet with vitamin E is an option. REFERENCE LIST Bunnell R.H., E. De Ritter, S.H. Rubin. Effect of feeidng polyunsaturated fatty acids with a low vitamin E diet on blood levels of tocopherol in men peroforming hard physical labour. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28:706-711, 1975. Clarkson P. M. Antioxidants and physical performance. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr 35: 131-141, 1995. Class notes on vitamins and minerals. Dr. Mariam Farhad, 2011 Groff, J.L., Gropper S.S., and Hunt S.M. The Fat Soluble Vitamins. In: Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Minneapolis: West Publishing Company, 1995, p. 284-324. Hartman, A., A.M. Neiss, M. Grunert-Fuchs, B. Poch, and G. Speit. Vitamin E prevents exercise-induced DNA damage. Mutat. Res. 346: 195-202, 1995. http://consumerlab.com/RDAS viewed 15.05.2011 http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE.asp viewed 13.05.2011 http://www.exrx.nt/nutrition/antixidants/vitaminE.html viewed 15.05.2011 Karlsson J. Exercise, muscle metabolism and the antioxidant defense. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 82:81-100, 1997. Packer L. Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:1050S-1055S, 1991. Rokitski, L., E. Logemann, A.N. Sagredos, M. Murphy, W. Wetzel-Roth, and J. Keul. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative vitamins under extreme stress. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 151: 149-158, 1994 Traber, M.G., 1999. Vitamin E. In: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Ninth Edition. Edited by Maurice Shils, James Olson, Moshe Shike, and A. Catharine Ross. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1999 p. 347-362. Watt, T., T.T. Romet, I. McFalane, D. McGuey, C. Allen, and R. C. Goode. Vitamin E and oxygen consumption. Lancet. 2: 354-358, 1974. T., T.T. Romet, I. McFalane, D. McGuey, C. Allen, and R. C. Goode. Vitamin E and oxygen consumption. Lancet. 2: 354-358, 1974.
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