Saturday, August 10, 2019

What were the sources and manifestations of Turkish national Essay

What were the sources and manifestations of Turkish national consciousness in the late Ottoman period (1860-1922) - Essay Example According to notable historians, the foundation and manifestation of Turkish national consciousness in this era are summarized as follows: The advent of nationalism in Western Europe in the 19th century had a substantial effect with regard to how the Christian population in the Ottoman state viewed their identity. During this period, the new radical nationalists were contending with the traditional leaders within the millets. This condition was compounded by the fact that the emerging superpowers of those times were meddling with the internal affairs of the state depending on what is beneficial for their own interest. (Poulton) The Tanzimat is described as the embodiment of reforms pertaining to the various aspects of the relations between the state and the subject. It was pioneered by Mustafa Resid Pasa and continued by Ali Pasa and Fuad Pasa, who were modernist bureaucrats. The Tanzimat was established to challenge the prevailing system. Planned reforms on society, judiciary and education incorporated views on security of life and property, as well as fair and public trial. In addition, the Tanzimat aimed to introduce religious equality in courts, which shocked the Muslim population. (Poulton) Although these reforms failed to create the intended Ottoman nation, the Tanzimat facilitated the process of nationalism influencing the Christian populations and dismantling the empire in the Balkans. This was done by enfeebling the conservative millet leaders and rendering greater influence to the nationalists. (Poulton) Young Ottomans, who gained distinction during the late Tanzimat period (1867-78), were the first to organize opposition groups which utilized ideas of the Enlightenment and tried to integrate modernization with Islam. Moreover, they were the foremost Ottoman group to harness the power of the media to proliferate their principles. (Poulton) Most notable of these Young Ottomans were Namik Kemal and Ali Suavi. The former

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